Distribution. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the CO 2 hydration reaction and some lipid and aldehyde hydration reactions, and participates in various ion exchanges to maintain the homeostasis of the organism. Bacteria encode carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 188.8.131.52) belonging to three different genetic families, the α-, β-, and γ-classes. Carbonic anhydrase accelerates the hydration/dehydration reaction between CO 2, HCO 3 −, and H +. Malfunctions in carbonic anhydrase’s regulation can cause glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness. Carbonic anhydrase By Jennifer McDowall. Carbonic anhydrase converts carbon dioxide to bicarbonate in a reversible reaction, primarily in red blood cells. The main role may be to provide inorganic carbon for the bicarbonate-dependent carboxylation reactions catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase. This process also maintains blood pH by controlling the amount of bicarbonate ions and protons dissolved in the blood. By equilibrating CO2 and bicarbonate, these metalloenzymes interfere with pH regulation and other crucial physiological processes of these organisms. The reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase is: HCO 3 − + H + ↽ − ⇀ CO 2 + H 2 O. Carbonic acid has a pK a of around 6.36 (the exact value depends on the medium), so at pH 7 a small percentage of the bicarbonate is protonated.. Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. In the lungs, carbonic anhydrase reverses the reaction, turning the carbonic acid back into CO. 2. to be exhaled. Carbon dioxide exists in equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO 3-), which is poorly soluble in lipid membranes compared to carbon dioxide; carbon dioxide can freely diffuse in and out of the cell, while bicarbonate must be transported. Catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO(2) to H(2)CO(3). Being an enzyme, carbonic anhydrase speeds up the reaction rate dramatically. CAI and CAII were isolated from red blood cells for the first time. Involved in protection against oxidative damage. The detailed investigations of many such enzymes from pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria afford the … This reaction can happen spontaneously, but the rate is much too slow for the body’s needs. to view carbonic anhydrase structure Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is a key metabolite in all living organisms. It is one of the fastest enzymes known. CA is widely distributed.
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